Author Archives: George Bryjak

George Bryjak

About George Bryjak

George J. Bryjak taught sociology at the University of San Diego for 24 years before retiring to the Adirondack Mountains. He is the co-author of four sociology textbooks and numerous scholarly articles. His commentaries have appeared in USA Today, the San Diego Union-Tribune, the Houston Chronicle, The Baltimore Sun, The Buffalo News, and the Adirondack Daily Enterprise among other newspapers in the United States and Canada.

Black Americans in the Revolutionary War

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Portrait of a black American Revolutaionary War salior by unknown artist, c 1780 (Original in the Newport Historical Society)Black Americans have a long and distinguished history of military service. They participated in every colonial war from 1690 through the French and Indian War (1754-1763) as soldiers, sailors, laborers, scouts, and spies. Blacks generally served in integrated units and earned the same pay as whites. Even slaves served in the army and were paid although their enlistment compelled them to surrender some portion of this money to their owners.

In the early Revolutionary War battles of Lexington, Concord, and Bunker Hill, free and enslaved Blacks fought shoulder to shoulder with white patriots. However, by the summer of 1775, under pressure from Southern plantation owners, General George Washington and the Continental Congress opposed the further enlistment of free blacks and slaves. Historians James and Lois Horton state that southern planters were “well aware of African-Americans desire for freedom, and most feared insurrection should slaves gain access to guns.” Continue reading

George Bryjak: The Cult of True Womanhood

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Cult of True WomanhoodA Protestant revival movement, the Second Great Awakening (SGA), began in the 1790s in this country and lasted until approximately 1850. Consequences of this movement that its millions of adherents could not imagine are evident today and will continue to shape gender relations.

Most historians consider the SGA a reaction against the prevailing Enlightenment values of rationalism, skepticism, and secularism that were paramount in the aftermath of the First Great Awakening that occurred between 1731 and 1755. Continue reading